Canada OH & S

OH & S Legislation in Canada

Q. Who is covered under the jurisdiction of the federal government in Canada?

A. Approximately 10% of the Canadian workforce falls under the OH&S jurisdiction of the federal government. The remaining 90% of Canadian workers fall under the legislation of the province or territory where they work. The Canada Labour Code also applies to employees of companies or sectors that operate across provincial or international borders.

Q. What occupational health and safety agency covers my workplace??

A. There are fourteen jurisdictions in Canada – one federal, ten provincial and three territorial each having its own occupational health and safety legislation. For most people in Canada, the agency that you would contact is the provincial or territorial agency in the area where you work. There are some exceptions to this. Federal legislation covers employees of the federal government and Crown agencies and corporations across Canada.


Occupational Health and Safety
Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training and Labour
10th Floor Seventh Street Plaza, South Tower
10030 – 107 Street
Edmonton  AB  T5J 3E4
General Inquiries: (780) 415-8690
Workplace Health and Safety Call Centre: 1-866-415-8690

British Columbia

6951 Westminster Highway
P.O. Box 5350 STN Terminal
Richmond BC V6B 5L5
General Inquiries: (604) 273-2266
Health & Safety Questions (604) 276-3100; 1-888-621-7233
After hours safety and health emergency reporting: (604) 273-7711; 1-888-621-7233
Contact List/Regional Offices: Office locations


SAFE Manitoba
16 – 363 Broadway
Winnipeg MB R3C 3N9

For more information on SAFE Work Manitoba or for Workplace Safety and Health: (204) 957-7233; 1-866-929-7233

New Brunswick

Saint John – Head Office
1 Portland Street
P.O. Box 160
Saint John NB E2L 3X9
Telephone: (506) 632-2200; 1-800-222-9775

Newfoundland and Labrador

Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Service NL
28 Pippy Place
St John’s NL A1B 3X4
Telephone: 1-800-563-5471
Serious Workplace Accident Reports: (709) 729-4444 (24 Hours)

Northwest Territories and Nunavut

Workers’ Safety and Compensation Commission of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut
P.O. Box 8888
Centre Square Tower, 5th Floor
5022 49 Street
Yellowknife NT X1A 2R3
Telephone: (867) 920-3888; 1-800-661-0792
Iqaluit Office: (867) 979-8500; 1-877-404-4407
Inuvik Office – Industrial Safety: (867) 678-2301

Nova Scotia

Occupational Health & Safety Division
Nova Scotia Labour and Advanced Education
P.O. Box 697
5151 Terminal Road
Halifax, NS B3J 2T8
Telephone: 902-424-5400; 1-800-952-2687 or   or


Occupational Health and Safety Branch
Ministry of Labour
505 University Avenue, 19th Floor
Toronto, ON M7A 1T7
Telephone: 1-877-202-0008 (in Ontario only)
Regional Offices:

Prince Edward Island

Safe Workplaces
Workers’ Compensation Board
P.O. Box 757. 14 Weymouth Street
Charlottetown PE C1A 7L7
General Inquiries: (902) 368-5680; 1-800-237-5049 (in Atlantic Canada only)


Commission des normes, de l’équité, de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CNESST)
[Administrative Head Office]
524, rue Bourdages
Québec QC G1K 7E2
Telephone: 1-844-838-0808 ou
Regional Offices:


WorkSafe Saskatchewan
200 – 1881 Scarth Street
Regina SK S4P 4L1
Telephone: (306) 787-4370; 1-800-667-7590
To report a dangerous work situation: 1-800-567-7233


Occupational Health and Safety Branch
Yukon Workers’ Compensation, Health and Safety Board
401 Strickland Street
Whitehorse YT Y1A 5N8
General Inquiries (867) 667-5645; 1-800-661-0443

Q. What is a JSA?

A. Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is one of the risk assessment tools used to identify and control workplace hazards.  A JSA is a second tier risk assessment with the aim of preventing personal injury to a person, or their colleagues, and any other person passing or working adjacent, above or below. JSAs are also known as Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) and Task Hazard Analysis (THA).

Q. What is a JSEA?

A. A Job Safety and Environmental Analysis (JSEA) is the same as a JSA or a JHA but also considers the risks to the environment and control measures to minimise these risks. An example of a JSEA can be found here.

Q. What is the difference between a JHA and a JSEA?

A. A Job Safety and Environmental Analysis (JSEA) is essentially the same as a Safe Work Method Statement (JHA) but also considers the risks to the environment and control measures to minimise these risks. They all follow the following 3 basic elements:

Job step – what are you going to do?

Potential Hazard – What can go wrong or cause injury to persons or property

Hazard control measure – What are you going to do to make sure it doesn’t go wrong or cause injury.

Q. Does JSEAsy produce a JHA or a JSEA?

A. The JSEAsy software produced a hybrid JHA/ JSEA document. 
By inserting the steps that you are going to take, in the order that you are going to take them you are creating a Work Method Statement.
By identifying the potential hazards associated with each step and ways to control them you are creating a Safe Work Method Statement (JHA) or a Job Safety and Analysis (JSA).
By identifying Environmental Hazards associated with each step and ways to control them you are creating a JOB Safety and Environmental Analysis (JSEA). 

JSEAsy wraps all this into one document.

Q. What is the Hazard Identification and Assessment Process?

 A. According to the Occupational Health and Safety legislation, employers are required to assess a work site for existing and potential hazards before work begins.

The Hazard Identification and Assessment process will impact many other elements of the Health and Safety Management System. As a result, it is important to take the time necessary to do the job thoroughly. Hazard assessment data can also be used to develop other elements of a Health and Safety Management System, including:

Incident Investigations: hazard assessment and control data can be used to help determine if a system failure was the cause of an incident

Emergency Response: use hazard assessments to help pinpoint areas that will require Emergency Response Plans.

Work Site Inspections: use hazard assessment data as the basis for inspection checklists.

Training and Orientation: use hazard assessment data to determine what worker training needs to be done, and to build the content of employee orientations and job-specific training.

Q. What is a Hazard?

A. A Hazard is something that has the potential to cause harm

Q. How do I identify Hazards?

A. Occupational hazards are divided into two categories:

Health Hazards: A health hazard may produce serious and immediate (acute) health effects or cause long-term (chronic) health problems. All or part of the body may be affected. Someone with an occupational illness may not recognize the symptoms immediately. For example, noise-induced hearing loss is often not noticed until it is well advanced.

Safety Hazards: A safety hazard is anything that could endanger the immediate safety of an employee, for example, a pinch point, crush, or burn hazard.

Hazard Categories Both health and safety hazards can be classified into the following categories:

Physical hazards, including lifting, repetitive motions, slipping, machinery, working at heights, loud noise, extreme temperatures, etc.

Chemical Hazards, including exposure to chemicals, dusts, fumes, mists and vapours.

Biological Hazards, including exposure to viruses, fungi, bacteria, moulds, body fluids, and sewage.

Psychological Hazards, including violence, stress and fatigue.

Q. What is the difference between Hazard and Risk?

A. The terms “hazard” and “risk” are often used interchangeably (and incorrectly). A hazard is a situation, condition, or behaviour that has the potential to cause an injury or loss. For example, ice on a walkway, oven mitts with burn holes, or an unlabelled bottle of liquid are hazards. In contrast, risk is the chance of injury, damage, or loss and is usually expressed as a probability. For example, the risk of slipping on the icy walkway is high.

Q. What is a Hazard Report Form used for?

A. A hazard report form is used when workers have identified a potential hazard that cannot be simply and immediately fixed.

Q. What is Imminent Danger?

A. Some hazards are significant enough to present a situation of imminent danger. The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires that workers stop performing work if they believe that an imminent danger to their health and safety exists. Imminent danger in relation to any occupation means a danger that is not normal for that occupation, or a danger under which a person engaged in that occupation would not normally carry out the work

Q. What are the sources of Hazards?

A. There are many sources of hazards in a workplace, however, the three most likely sources that should be considered are:

Workplace Environment: Factors such as facility layout, ventilation and lighting, walking surfaces, temperature and other variables can all be sources of hazards.

Equipment and Materials: Some equipment, tools and materials used in the job process are inherently hazardous, and others become hazardous over time due to inadequate maintenance, storage, or disposal.

People: Lack of training, poor communication, rushing, fatigue, and other factors may cause at-risk behaviours.